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Honoring Jane Austen

Lovely painting of Jane Austen.

The Bookshelf of Emily J.

Most women enjoy or appreciate Jane Austen’s work. I am one of those women, and although I don’t necessarily like everything I’ve read by Austen, and while I haven’t actually read all of her books, I do appreciate what I have read. I also liked a recent movie called Austenland that took a comedic take on our obsession with Austen.

I recently came across another way of honoring Austen at the Springville Art Museum in Springville, Utah. I was there on a women’s history tour, and the museum had pulled out some of the art it holds by female artists with female subjects.

I saw this one and couldn’t resist sharing it with you.

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My favorite touch is the red wax seal on her signature of the work.

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I hope the artist doesn’t mind me sharing her work with you. The museum staff said it was okay to take…

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The Shores of the Cosmic Ocean

“The surface of the Earth is the Shore of the Cosmic Ocean. Recently we have waded a little out to Sea, enough to dampen our toes or, at most,wet our ankles. The water seems inviting. The Ocean calls. Some part of beings knows this is from where we came. We long to return”….(Carl Sagan)

lonely planet earth
Welcome to this beautiful Planet Earth. It’s full of Life a place of blue nitrogen skies oceans of liquid water cool forests and soft meadows. In all our journeying through space and time this place is unique and rare. There must be many such worlds scattered through space but we have yet to find life elsewhere. With the accumulated knowledge from our ancestorsearth over million years, we have begun our voyage to home from where we humans are born from stars and now inhabiting a world called Earth.
.Carl says
Something in us recognizes the Cosmos as home. We are made of stellar ash. Our origin and evolution have been tied to distant cosmic events. The exploration of Cosmos is a voyage of Self –discovery…..
Our History:
During third B.C. in Egyptian city of Alexandria, was flourished with scholars.
Eratosthenes was a one of them. He was a Greek astronomer historian geographer philosopher poet theatre critic and mathematician. He was the director of the the great ‘Library of Alexandria’. He deduced with experiment that our Earth is round(360 degrees) and not flat. He calculated its circumference very correctly. ..40,000kms. Its very interesting about his discovery… He had read in one of the papyrus book from the Library that at southern frontiers outpost of Syene at noon on June 21 vertical sticks casts ‘no’ shadows. He observed that in Alexandria that the vertical sticks did cast shadows at noon on June 21. A very simple experiment with these sticks he calculated that the surface of Earth is curved and not flat which was presumed. The sun is far away its rays are parallel when they strike the Earths .Sticks placed at the different angle to the sun rays casts shows of different lengths .(see dia.1) For the observed differences of the shadow lengths, the distance between Alexandria and Syene had to be about seven degrees along the surface of the Earth220px-Eratosthene.01. Seven degree is 1/50 of three hundred and sixty degrees Eratostheses quoted. How very correct his calculations were 2200 years ago. Really Amazing!

The city was founded by Alexander the Great. Alexander encouraged knowledge from all around the world. He respected their Gods and Culture. The greatest marvel during his rule was the Library of Alexandria. He invited great scholars from India China Japan etc.etc. The Greek kings of Egypt who succeeded Alexander supported research and entertained the best minds for centuries. The Alexandrian Library is where we humans first collected seriously and systematically the knowledge of the world.
Seven centuries after its founding a Greek female Scholar Hypatia a mathemation philosophehypetiar an astronomer surpassed the philosophers of her time. Around 400 AD she became the head of Platonist school of Alexandria and taught the knowledge of Plato and Aristotle. Egypt then was ruled by Romans. By contemporary sources it is said that she was brutally murdered. The Library of Alexandria was destroyed…
Hypatia was the last light of the Library.
Socrates has written about her in his Ecclesiastical History.
We shall see more about these Scientist and Philosphers in coming

blogs..Socrates, AC Grayling

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“Death of the philosopher Hypatia, in Alexandria” from Vies des savants illustres, depuis l’antiquité jusqu’au dix-neuvième siècle, 1866, by Louis Figuier.

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source: Cosmos by Carl Sagan images from web and wikipedia

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My earlier article on ‘Human Evolution’Due to the morphological and anatomical similarities between the apes and humans, scientists believed that the great apes were the closest biological relatives of human beings http://timesofindia.speakingtree.in/public/spiritual-slideshow/seekers/science-of-spirituality/human-evolution-243946/60992 dated 11 nov2013 the process of evolution in humans continues even now.

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It is taking place in a slow pace, thats why we are not able to notice the evolutionary changes. According to Hardy-Weinberg Equilibrium’, changes which take place due to evolution are a mathematical necessity. These changes may get interrupted or influenced only by mutations, natural selection, gene flow, or non-random mating.

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Humans just like any other species are subject to the forces of Nature and are still evolving physically and biologically too.

Cultivation: Cultivation was a major aspect in evolving mankind. Their social life, physical labour and intellect developed largely. The surplus food produced from agriculture secured a stable life from nomadic life and…

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WHAT IS GRAVITY?

What is GRAVITY?g2
In the year 2013 a Science fiction movie GRAVITY was awarded with OSCAR My daughter persuaded us to see this movie on big screen in Cinema Hall to get the 3D effect. It was amazing to see a Medical Engineer Astronaut Dr. Ryan Stone (Actress Sandra Bullock) and a veteran Astronaut Matt Kowalsky (Actor George Clooney) on a space shuttle to repair the damaged Hubble Telescope. During their space walk , disaster strikes their shuttle and other crew members gets destroyed leaving the two astronauts stranded in Space. No link with the Earth, the terrifying expanse of space how they make to International Space Stations and another Chinese Space station close by…
and board a Soyuz model and return home (Earth).A unique grand movie
Everything floats in Space as there is no Gravity there.

Due to this gravity we have a firm foothold on Earth. What will be Life without this force?
I kept pondering…
Had learnt about Newton’s Laws of Gravitation in School…
Sir Isaac Newton (25 December1642-20 March 1726) was an English Physicist and Mathematician one of the most influential scientist of all times.

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What is Gravity?
Gravity is an invisible force that pulls/attracts all matter towards itself. But this force is very very weak that is why the matter does not get pulled with other objects. The fundamental forces of the universe include the electromagnetic, strong nuclear, weak nuclear and gravitational forces. Gravity is the weakest of all but in cases where matter is involved in massive quantities (for example: a black hole), it is the strongest and most dominant one. Gravity is the reason everything gets attracted towards the Earth’s surface, and also for the formation and movement of all the planets and other heavenly bodies.

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(Gravity keeps the moon where it’s supposed to be — in orbit.
Photo courtesy of NASA)
Gravity also is important on a larger scale. It is the Sun’s gravity that keeps the Earth in orbit around the Sun; otherwise Earth would fling drifting in space. Life on Earth needs the Sun’s light and warmth to survive. Gravity helps the Earth to stay just the right distance from the Sun, so it’s not too hot or too cold. It’s the Earth’s gravity that keeps the moon in orbit around the Earth.

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Isaac Newton discovered Gravitational Force

Newton’s law of universal gravitation, which postulates that the gravitational force of two bodies of mass is directly proportional to the product of their masses and inversely proportional to the square of the distance between them. He also postulated the Law of Motion.

Gravitational Force = G* ___(M1*M2) ______________
(d2)
where ‘G’ is the gravitational constant, ‘m1’ and ‘m2’ are the masses of the two objects, for which the force has to be calculated, and ‘d’ is the distance between the centers of gravity of both masses.

Albert Einstein:gravity-works-3.jpg

In modern physics, gravity is most accurately described by the general theory of relativity (proposed by Einstein) which describes gravity as a consequence of the curvature of spacetime. (Albert Einstein called gravity a distortion in the shape of space-time. Photo by keystone/getty images)

In 1806, a British physiologist called A. Knight demonstrated through an experiment, the control of gravity on the direction of a plant’s root growth. The term geotropism was first coined by A. B. Franck in 1868. It is a growth movement by a plant in response to gravity.

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If you were to put a plant on its side you would notice that after a while the roots start growing downward while the stem grows upward. This response to gravity is called geotropism, or gravitropism. The roots are exhibiting positive geotropism (growing with gravity) and the stem is exhibiting negative geotropism (growing against gravity).

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Fun facts about gravity:
Ocean tides are caused by the gravity of the moon.
Mars is smaller and has less mass than Earth. As a result it has less gravity. If you weigh 100 pounds on Earth, you would weigh 38 pounds on Mars. Moon

SOURCE:Buzzle, howstuffworks images from NASA ,Net.

TREMORS

TREMORS

 

The Nepal earthquake (also referred to as the Himalayan earthquake) was a magnitude 7.8 (Mw) earthquake that occurred at 11:56 NST (6:11:26 UTC) on Saturday 25 April 2015, with the epicenter approximately 34 km (21 mi) east-southeast of Lamjung, Nepal, and the hypocenter at a depth of approximately 15 km (9.3 mi). It is the most powerful earthquake to have hit Nepal since the 1934 Nepal–Bihar earthquake. Over 1,900 people are known to have died as a result of the earthquake with casualties reported in Nepal and adjoining areas of India, China, and Bangladesh. It was the deadliest day on Mount Everest, surpassing the death toll in the 2014 Mount Everest avalanche. Centuries-old buildings were destroyed in the UNESCO World Heritage sites in the Kathmandu Valley, including some at Kathmandu Durbar Square.(Wikipedia)

I remember an incident years back , we used to sleep on terrace in summer. It was a cool and starry night . Soon I was asleep. At midnight I was awakened by a rumbling noise, the vibrations penetrated my bones. I gasped for breath and wondered what it was. I felt the tremors on the floor and knew for sure that it was an earthquake. I woke everybody up. The vibrations had lasted for seconds only.. my family did not notice anything and they all went to sleep. It took quite sometime for me to get back to sleep. Next morning there were headlines in the newspapers that our city had experienced an earthquake. Many people experienced the tremors in different parts of the city.. No damage or loss of life was reported. I thanked the almighty!
Another incident i recall,of childhood when we were in Srinagar. We were playing outside on the playground. A sudden moms cry calling us all to come out of our houses . She witnessed the vessels and articles on the stand starting tumbling . We heard the rumbling sound, we could see our house and ground tilted to some degrees and back. People came out shrieking. God know what was the scale of the richter. We were too young to know what was it all about.
By Gods grace no tragic incident had occurred . It was indeed a memorable hair raising incident though.
There were n number of questions in my mind. What caused the Earth to Tremor. The encyclopedia was referred. It said that sudden release of energy in the earths crust creates seismic waves.. Earthquakes are caused mostly by rupture of geological faults, huge amount of gas migration mainly methane deep within the earth, also by volcanic activity landslides mine blasts and Nuclear experiments. Remember the earthquake in Gujrat (26January 2001), nearly 20, thousand people were killed and many thousands rendered homeless.The Tsunami waves (26December 2004).. The earthquake in China on 12 of May 2008 left thousands of homes and families devastated! I felt the pangs of sorrow . I pondered we can know the impending disaster of climate etc. by the help of satellite .Isn’t there any way to know the impending earthquakes so that we could save the lives of people.
A couple of years back:
The BBC News “Plan for Quake warning System” by Paul Rincon had caught my attention . I gave a sigh of hope and read it eargely. In the news they reported that NASA has achieved a breakthrough in forcasting earthquake. They have found a link between the electrical disturbances occurring at the edge of our atmosphere and the impending quakes on the ground below. Signals were spotted during devastation in China . Minoru Freund a physicist and director for advanced aerospace material and devices at NASA Ames Research Centre in California told BBC “I do believe that we will be able to establish a correlation between certain earthquakes and certain pre-earthquakes signals in the unbiased way”.
The Research is going on. Earthquaqe in Gujrat
A lot of devastation of Japan due to the recent earthquake and Tsunami waves has triggered new peril for the whole of mankind. The Nuclear Plants getting damaged by the earthquakes. The Fukushima Nuclear Plant is quake damaged . A Nuclear War not from the countries or Terrorrists but by natural calamities is going on. The fresh memories of Chernobyl disaster in 26th April 1986 in Ukraine when millions of people suffered the blast and the aftermaths.
At Home:
India has 20 nuclear reactors in operation in total six nuclear plants. People are concerned and fear the nuclear explosions due to seismic or any other activity.

What amount of security measures can we take for Natural disasters.? If Japan is prone for earthquakes why were it permitted for Nuclear Development. Actually none of the countries should be permitted for Nuclear Armaments or Energy Source. Why are we not learning lessons from the recent disasters.

e in Gujrat
 
A lot of devastation of Japan due to the recent earthquake and Tsunami waves has triggered new peril for the whole of mankind. The Nuclear Plants getting damaged by the earthquakes. The Fukushima Nuclear Plant is quake damaged . A Nuclear War not from the countries or Terrorrists but by natural calamities is going on. The fresh memories of Chernobyl disaster in 26th April 1986 in Ukraine when millions of people suffered the blast and the aftermaths.
 
At Home:
India has 20 nuclear reactors in operation in total six nuclear plants. People are concerned and fear the nuclear explosions due to seismic or any other activity.
 
What amount of security measures can we take for Natural disasters.? If Japan is prone for earthquakes why were it permitted for Nulear Development. Actually none of the countries should be permitted for Nuclear Armaments or Energy Source. Why are we not learning lessons from the recent disasters.
 
There has to be a total ban on Nuclear developments. An eye opener for the survival of our Beloved Planet Earth.
Tags : Earth
Source : mine and some portion from wikipedia images from google
 

ARE WE ALONE

SETI’s Alien Telescope Array (ATA) listens day and night for a signal from space (SETI)OLYMPUS DIGITAL CAMERA

ARE WE ALONE

Humanity is at the pinnacle of Life at this planet. For roughly 30,000 years we human beings have struggled and fought our way for survival. We created civisation . Many civilizations rose and fell. The most successful civilization was of the Egyptians lasted some 4500 years . The Greeks lasted a thousand and the Romans civilization lasted some 1500 years miniscule as compared to the Stars.

SEARCH FOR EXTRA-TERRISTRIAL INTELLIGENCE (SETI)

 

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Since the beginning of civilization mankind has wondered if we are Alone in this Universe or is there any Life elsewhere. Probes are sent to other planets (Mars,) of our Solar system, to investigate any other life exists there or not.

In the late twentieth century scientists converged upon the basic idea of scanning the sky and listening for non random pattern of electromagnetic waves (radio and TV waves) to determine the existence of another civilization in the universe. NASA joined in SETI efforts in 1960/70ties. By their mutual efforts more intensive Search was organized in 1995. But their Government cancelled their programme within a year. It is now funded by private foundations. Scientist Carl Sagan was promoter and believer of the presence of life outside Earth.

Frank Drake of SETI, a Scientist has devoted his life to establish the presence of extra-terrestrial life. He derived an equation which is known as Drake Equation..The probability of life elsewhere. Frank Drake had conceived an approach to bind the terms involved in estimating the number of technological civilizations that may exist in our galaxy. The equation is represented as

N = R* • fp • ne • fl • fi • fc • L, where

N = The number of civilizations in the Milky Way whose electromagnetic emissions are detectable.

R* = The rate of formation of stars suitable for the development of intelligent life.

fp = The fraction of those stars with planetary systems.

ne = The number of planets per solar system, with an environment suitable for life.

fl = The fraction of suitable planets on which life actually appears.

fi = The fraction of life-bearing planets on which intelligent life emerges.

fc = The fraction of civilizations that develop a technology that releases detectable signs of their existence into space.

L = The length of time such civilizations release detectable signals into space.

To scan the sky SETI needed equipments, very large computers . But the largest fastest computer too was uable to scan decode radio TV waves in the sky. Therefore, they

 

 

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devised a project called SETI@home, which they distributed as free Screen Savers to public’s personnel computers from their website://setiathome.berkley.edu which once installed routinely downloaded packets of information from the central server and analysez them. Thousands of people have uploaded this free project showing their awareness and interest in the mission. I and my daughter too have installed on our computers Seti@home since its inception in 1999.

Recent Debate:

There was a furious debate recently among the astronomers about whether we should send our signals to the Universe saying/we’re here..Whether we should take the risk of letting all the Aliens know that we are here.

 

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A scientist and science fiction writer David Brin said,

“The arrogance of shouting into the cosmos without any proper risk assessment defies belief. It is a course that would put our grandchildren at risk.” If we send them (aliens) messages they will come here and enslave us. Or just eat us.

Actually we have been sending our radio and TV singnals since many years (100 yrs), and by now they must have been received . The nearest star is four light years away..Our signals fade away in just one light year…

This new debate is actually of active SETI. We have been doing passive SETI listening for messages from civilization from other stars for more than forty years.

Ellan Stofan (NASA chief scientist) said I think we are going to have strong indications of Life beyond Earth within a decade, and i think we are going to have definitive evidence within 20 to 30 years.   WE know where to look, we know how to look. We have the technology and we are on the path to implementing it. And so I think we are definitely on the road.”

Latest News from NASA that, Be ready to witness Alien Life by 2025 .It’s really becoming interesting isn’t it?

 

carl_sagan___03_by_aguelmann-d375mh0(Buzzle.com Newpaper, SETI(NASA) images)

 

THE DARK UNIVERSE.

images THE DARK UNIVERSE Looking up in the sky we see stars shining the moon the sun and with the help of telescope we can see far far away stars and galaxies etc. The Universe is much more than the shining materials gases dust particle etc. Where light cannot penetrate how can we see such materials? Our Scientist Physicsts and Simulation of the large-scale structure of matter in the univers Astronomers have found that most of our Universe is Dark yet it is not empty. All the luminous matter in the Universe is only 4 to 5% rest is stark Dark.. known as Dark Matter and Dark Energy. DARK MATTER: At the moment of big bang dark matter was created and it played a critical role helping ordinary matter clump together and form stars and planets acted like scaffolding upon which ordinary matter could attach itself. dark matter was pulled together by gravity very slowly over time and actually form the scenes around which normal matter coalesced , like a cosmic web ,(a spiders web) where these strands of dark matter is the framework.. Astronomers have been able to take their theory one step further and create detailed 3d map of dark matter in the universe using gravitational lensing . Einstein said, the gravity affects everything just like gravity is caused by everything so one of the things that is affected by gravity is light itself .When light goes to the dark matter it bends just the way light bends when it goes thru the glass and light dosn’t discriminate ordinary matter and dark matter. An overlay of an optical image of a cluster of galaxies with an x-ray image of hot gas lying within the cluster The missing mass in the galaxies during rotation speed of galaxies calculate by Fritz Zwhaky Jan Oort in 1930s and Vera Rubin in 1970s was termed as Dark Matter. Dark Matter hides in space…. acts as skeleton it is the backbone around which the visible material is clumping by…it is estimated dark martter makes up 24percent in the universe, well ordinary matter makes up only 4.6%. The final 71.4%percent of the universe Scientist were shocked to discover new mysterious dark energy was dominating space .It is driving the glaxies apart. The prediction by the scientists that the Universe continues to grow in size..it will eventually slow expansion or perhaps even collapse on itself. But by measuring the expansion history of the Universe,Scientists were shocked to realize that the Universe was not slowing down it was speeding up…what mysterious force was acting for this vast speeding galaxies apart? ..The Dark Energy iclusters

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An overlay of an optical image of a cluster of galaxies with an x-ray image of hot gas lying within the cluster

The Dark Energy the mysterious force is created wit121236_NewPieChart320h the bursting of (white dwarf)dead star. … This Supernovae.or stellar explosion ,their brightness amounts to the Suns or a Stars radiation throughout its lifetime…. A lot of research is being done in particle physics on dark matter by the U.S. government. Projects like the Super Cryogenic Dark Matter Search (SuperCDMS), the LUX-ZEPLIN (LZ) Experiment, and the Axion Dark Matter Experiment Gen2 (ADMX-Gen2) have been initiated by the U.S. government for studying dark matter and its Weakly Interacting Massive Particles (WIMP)

(the images from the net. )

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???????????The Earth hit by a Comet

What is a Comet? According to the definitions given by various space research organizations, a comet is a celatial body that travels in an elliptical orbit around the sun. Comet consists of nucleus and tail. The nucleus is made of ice, dust and various frozen gases. When it comes near the vicinity of its star which it orbits around ,the nucleus frozen contents melts -vaporizes . Due to immense velocity and solar winds they get pushed away from the nucleus of the comet forming tail. Due to heat the particles get ionized  (charged due to heat of the sun) cause its tail to glow. Sometimes comets crash into the planets when their orbits cross eachother. The most famous example being the Shoemaker Levy 9 that crashed intoJupiter. Halleys cometHallays Comet Source o comet shoemaker levy9 f Life on Earth A team of Tel Aviv University led by Professor Akiva Bar-Nun carried out study and found out that comets were the source of missing ingredients needed for Life on Earth’s primodial Soup . “When comets slammed into Earth through the atmosphere about four billion years ago, they delivered a payload of organic materials to the young Earth, adding materials that combined with Earth’s own large reservoir of organics and led to the emergence of life,” Prof Bar-Nun said. Comet Shoemaker Levy 9 crashing on Jupiter comet_missed_earth_1883_606The Comet missed hitting earth in1883 The Comet Lovejoy formerly known as C/2014Q2 The comet was discovered on Aug. 17, 2014 by amateur astronomer Terry Lovejoy. It is the fifth comet he has discovered since 2007 Comet_Lovejoy_photographed_by_Dan_Burbank Comet Lovejoy This comet is already been visible for those living in southern hemisphere…as per EarthSky.org. For some people it is visible with naked eye, while to some  by Telescopes etc. 1490994 Comet 1P A British scientist called Edmond Halley, who observed the comet in 1682, was the first person to establish its periodic reappearance after every 75 – 76 years. Comets have fascinated Humans right from the beginning of our existence. Now the researchers of today say that the chemical organic components of the Comets and that of Young Earths organic components combination have produced the Life on Earth. The Scientist of Tel Aviv University have succeeded in simulating the ice components of Comets in lab… From where have we emerged is getting exciting… comet-elenin-sign Comet Elenin

WHAT IS SPACE?

Sunrise_in_Space_by_gucken  SUNRISE IN SPACE BY GUCKEN

What is space? Its everywhere in the universe.It separates you from me, one galaxy from the next, and atoms from one another. It is everywhere in the universe. But to most of us, space is nothing, an empty void. Well, it turns out space is not what it seems.

From the perspective of Earth and its Habitat,outer space is a zone that occurs 100 kilometers(60 miles)above the planet. There is very scarce oxygen. The blue color is due to the oxygen molecules, is turned to black in space. No sound exists, cause sound needs medium to travel, needs sufficient air like on earth. But that does not mean space is empty. Gas dust and other bits of matter float around emptier areas of the universe. The crowded areas are filled with stars planet and galaxies.

space-wallpapers-1SPACE

 

We cannot comprehend its size. We do not know how big the Space is. We measure long distance in space in “light-years”representing the distance taken for light to travel in a year. With Hubble Space Telescope we came to know that the Universe is expanding. What ‘ force is pulling the galaxies apart.The scientist are unable to understand.. they term it Dark Matter and Dark Energy.Space_dust_by_zen_nikkiSPACE DUST BY ZEN NIKKI

 

Radiations: Space seems empty to human eye, recent research has found that forms of radiations are emanating through the cosmos. The suns radiation made up of plasma and other particles permeates past the planet causing dazzling color effect in the atmosphere of Earth’s poles. This cosmic ionized particles glow is termed ‘Aurora’.

 

camelopardalid-meteor-aurora-gail-lamm-manitoba-canadaAURORA

 

Radiations of Cosmic Microwave Background(CMB)created at the time of Big Bang. They are known as leftovers of the immense explosion, are present in the space.Interstellar dust gas clouds are seen in the space. They are bright Nebulas.

 

NEBULAORION NEBULA

 

 

The exploding dying star,nearly after years in the galaxy some bright supernove are detected.

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SUPERNOVA

The galaxy MACS0647-JD (inset) appears very young and is only a fraction of the size of our own Milky Way. The galaxy is about 13.3 billion light-years from Earth, the farthest galaxy yet known, and formed 420 million years after the Big Bang. Image taken by Hubble Space Telescope on Nov. 29, 2011, and released Nov. 15, 2012.

 

 

farthest-galaxy-universe-macsj0647FARTHEST GALAXY

 

Scientist have discovered a new ingredient of space which is 70 % of our Universe.Dark Energy and Dark Matter. We cannot see it but by experiments (lensing) they could assess this invisible force pushing the matter apart expanding the universe speedily. They have yet to prove it.

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Ref. Elezabeth Howell , Buzzle, images from NASA