Archive for the ‘Science’ Category


The Shores of the Cosmic Ocean

“The surface of the Earth is the Shore of the Cosmic Ocean. Recently we have waded a little out to Sea, enough to dampen our toes or, at most,wet our ankles. The water seems inviting. The Ocean calls. Some part of beings knows this is from where we came. We long to return”….(Carl Sagan)

lonely planet earth
Welcome to this beautiful Planet Earth. It’s full of Life a place of blue nitrogen skies oceans of liquid water cool forests and soft meadows. In all our journeying through space and time this place is unique and rare. There must be many such worlds scattered through space but we have yet to find life elsewhere. With the accumulated knowledge from our ancestorsearth over million years, we have begun our voyage to home from where we humans are born from stars and now inhabiting a world called Earth.
.Carl says
Something in us recognizes the Cosmos as home. We are made of stellar ash. Our origin and evolution have been tied to distant cosmic events. The exploration of Cosmos is a voyage of Self –discovery…..
Our History:
During third B.C. in Egyptian city of Alexandria, was flourished with scholars.
Eratosthenes was a one of them. He was a Greek astronomer historian geographer philosopher poet theatre critic and mathematician. He was the director of the the great ‘Library of Alexandria’. He deduced with experiment that our Earth is round(360 degrees) and not flat. He calculated its circumference very correctly. ..40,000kms. Its very interesting about his discovery… He had read in one of the papyrus book from the Library that at southern frontiers outpost of Syene at noon on June 21 vertical sticks casts ‘no’ shadows. He observed that in Alexandria that the vertical sticks did cast shadows at noon on June 21. A very simple experiment with these sticks he calculated that the surface of Earth is curved and not flat which was presumed. The sun is far away its rays are parallel when they strike the Earths .Sticks placed at the different angle to the sun rays casts shows of different lengths .(see dia.1) For the observed differences of the shadow lengths, the distance between Alexandria and Syene had to be about seven degrees along the surface of the Earth220px-Eratosthene.01. Seven degree is 1/50 of three hundred and sixty degrees Eratostheses quoted. How very correct his calculations were 2200 years ago. Really Amazing!

The city was founded by Alexander the Great. Alexander encouraged knowledge from all around the world. He respected their Gods and Culture. The greatest marvel during his rule was the Library of Alexandria. He invited great scholars from India China Japan etc.etc. The Greek kings of Egypt who succeeded Alexander supported research and entertained the best minds for centuries. The Alexandrian Library is where we humans first collected seriously and systematically the knowledge of the world.
Seven centuries after its founding a Greek female Scholar Hypatia a mathemation philosophehypetiar an astronomer surpassed the philosophers of her time. Around 400 AD she became the head of Platonist school of Alexandria and taught the knowledge of Plato and Aristotle. Egypt then was ruled by Romans. By contemporary sources it is said that she was brutally murdered. The Library of Alexandria was destroyed…
Hypatia was the last light of the Library.
Socrates has written about her in his Ecclesiastical History.
We shall see more about these Scientist and Philosphers in coming

blogs..Socrates, AC Grayling


“Death of the philosopher Hypatia, in Alexandria” from Vies des savants illustres, depuis l’antiquité jusqu’au dix-neuvième siècle, 1866, by Louis Figuier.


source: Cosmos by Carl Sagan images from web and wikipedia

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images THE DARK UNIVERSE Looking up in the sky we see stars shining the moon the sun and with the help of telescope we can see far far away stars and galaxies etc. The Universe is much more than the shining materials gases dust particle etc. Where light cannot penetrate how can we see such materials? Our Scientist Physicsts and Simulation of the large-scale structure of matter in the univers Astronomers have found that most of our Universe is Dark yet it is not empty. All the luminous matter in the Universe is only 4 to 5% rest is stark Dark.. known as Dark Matter and Dark Energy. DARK MATTER: At the moment of big bang dark matter was created and it played a critical role helping ordinary matter clump together and form stars and planets acted like scaffolding upon which ordinary matter could attach itself. dark matter was pulled together by gravity very slowly over time and actually form the scenes around which normal matter coalesced , like a cosmic web ,(a spiders web) where these strands of dark matter is the framework.. Astronomers have been able to take their theory one step further and create detailed 3d map of dark matter in the universe using gravitational lensing . Einstein said, the gravity affects everything just like gravity is caused by everything so one of the things that is affected by gravity is light itself .When light goes to the dark matter it bends just the way light bends when it goes thru the glass and light dosn’t discriminate ordinary matter and dark matter. An overlay of an optical image of a cluster of galaxies with an x-ray image of hot gas lying within the cluster The missing mass in the galaxies during rotation speed of galaxies calculate by Fritz Zwhaky Jan Oort in 1930s and Vera Rubin in 1970s was termed as Dark Matter. Dark Matter hides in space…. acts as skeleton it is the backbone around which the visible material is clumping by…it is estimated dark martter makes up 24percent in the universe, well ordinary matter makes up only 4.6%. The final 71.4%percent of the universe Scientist were shocked to discover new mysterious dark energy was dominating space .It is driving the glaxies apart. The prediction by the scientists that the Universe continues to grow in size..it will eventually slow expansion or perhaps even collapse on itself. But by measuring the expansion history of the Universe,Scientists were shocked to realize that the Universe was not slowing down it was speeding up…what mysterious force was acting for this vast speeding galaxies apart? ..The Dark Energy iclusters


An overlay of an optical image of a cluster of galaxies with an x-ray image of hot gas lying within the cluster

The Dark Energy the mysterious force is created wit121236_NewPieChart320h the bursting of (white dwarf)dead star. … This Supernovae.or stellar explosion ,their brightness amounts to the Suns or a Stars radiation throughout its lifetime…. A lot of research is being done in particle physics on dark matter by the U.S. government. Projects like the Super Cryogenic Dark Matter Search (SuperCDMS), the LUX-ZEPLIN (LZ) Experiment, and the Axion Dark Matter Experiment Gen2 (ADMX-Gen2) have been initiated by the U.S. government for studying dark matter and its Weakly Interacting Massive Particles (WIMP)

(the images from the net. )


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Sunrise_in_Space_by_gucken  SUNRISE IN SPACE BY GUCKEN

What is space? Its everywhere in the universe.It separates you from me, one galaxy from the next, and atoms from one another. It is everywhere in the universe. But to most of us, space is nothing, an empty void. Well, it turns out space is not what it seems.

From the perspective of Earth and its Habitat,outer space is a zone that occurs 100 kilometers(60 miles)above the planet. There is very scarce oxygen. The blue color is due to the oxygen molecules, is turned to black in space. No sound exists, cause sound needs medium to travel, needs sufficient air like on earth. But that does not mean space is empty. Gas dust and other bits of matter float around emptier areas of the universe. The crowded areas are filled with stars planet and galaxies.



We cannot comprehend its size. We do not know how big the Space is. We measure long distance in space in “light-years”representing the distance taken for light to travel in a year. With Hubble Space Telescope we came to know that the Universe is expanding. What ‘ force is pulling the galaxies apart.The scientist are unable to understand.. they term it Dark Matter and Dark Energy.Space_dust_by_zen_nikkiSPACE DUST BY ZEN NIKKI


Radiations: Space seems empty to human eye, recent research has found that forms of radiations are emanating through the cosmos. The suns radiation made up of plasma and other particles permeates past the planet causing dazzling color effect in the atmosphere of Earth’s poles. This cosmic ionized particles glow is termed ‘Aurora’.




Radiations of Cosmic Microwave Background(CMB)created at the time of Big Bang. They are known as leftovers of the immense explosion, are present in the space.Interstellar dust gas clouds are seen in the space. They are bright Nebulas.





The exploding dying star,nearly after years in the galaxy some bright supernove are detected.



The galaxy MACS0647-JD (inset) appears very young and is only a fraction of the size of our own Milky Way. The galaxy is about 13.3 billion light-years from Earth, the farthest galaxy yet known, and formed 420 million years after the Big Bang. Image taken by Hubble Space Telescope on Nov. 29, 2011, and released Nov. 15, 2012.



farthest-galaxy-universe-macsj0647FARTHEST GALAXY


Scientist have discovered a new ingredient of space which is 70 % of our Universe.Dark Energy and Dark Matter. We cannot see it but by experiments (lensing) they could assess this invisible force pushing the matter apart expanding the universe speedily. They have yet to prove it.


Ref. Elezabeth Howell , Buzzle, images from NASA

















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Human Mind is ever thinking of past present and future. A new chapter of evolution in the Space journey is being probed. Our imaginary travel to the different planet like Mars and Moon in our science fiction stories have proved  real life Mission.     





We are literally in the race of Star Trekking. Our Mars Orbitor Mission Mangalyan was launched successfully in Earths Orbit on 5th Nov 2013, by the Indian Space Research Organisation(ISRO) Its expected to enter Mars orbit around 24 sep. 2014    






The mission is a “technology demonstrator” project aiming to develop the technologies required for design, planning, management, and operations of an interplanetary mission.








The luminous threat Earth had suffered from Asteroids before and further still.. From Natural calamiities and Manmade destruction are looming ahead A potential future habitable world for our species, exploration to Mars and Moon is taking place.




Should the humans survive the Nuclear threat etc& with the rate of exponential technical advancement it is predicted that we can colonize space till the end of this century. The number of artificial settelites zooming in space and an International Space station built will help in our colonisation in space mission.





Planet Mars and our Natural satellite Moon seems the nearest celestial bodies where humans can colonize. By chemical engineeering (Terraforming), making their unhabitable envionment into habitable zone for humans. Its not an easy task. It might take yea





We can think of colonising celestial bodies of our ‘Solar system’ only. Outside our Solar System the nearest star to our Earth is Proxima Centauri which is 4.243 light years aways from Earth. It would takes years to travel to the stars, their distances are unimaginably far.





In the future at some point, our space exploration and colonising there will become a necessity for the survival of our species(future generation) and Planet Earth both.












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Cosmic Intelligence

Intellect is a term used in studies of the human mind, and refers to the ability of the mind to come to correct conclusions about what is true or real, and about how to solve problems. Historically the term comes from the Greek philosophical term nous, which was translated into Latin as intellectus (derived from the verb intelligere) and into French (and then English) as intelligence…WikipediaImage



According to some thinkers..This universe is evolved by mere an accident, and the life is evolved from a single cell the protozoa four billion years ago. Due to mutation in the cell different organisms were evolved. Human beings are the highest evolution of Nature. We can receive the components already in Nature thru our five sense organs.

“The proof that intelligence exists everywhere?… is that we have it! We would have absolutely no intelligence if it did not already exist in nature.Image




We cannot build our intelligence, it comes to us from the universe…..(The human intellect and cosmic Intelligence by Omraam Mikhaël Aïvanhov, )Image




In the universe, on the one hand, planets move so beautifully in order. There are no traffic signs or sign signboards! On the other hand, there is so much of chaos if you look at all the stars and galaxies moving in their own independent paths. In the same way, in quantum physics , the smallest elements are not even particles. They are both particles and waves, and a multitude of probabilities ! But there is an order in that chaos.Image



If the universe is chaos without any order, it’ll head towards destruction. ‘Chaos in order’ is ‘cosmic intelligence’ . Take the planet earth. Even if a single thing is missing – temperature, water, air or fire we will not be able to live on this planet earth as we live now. So this is not just an accident. The whole chaos has some order.Image


Swami Vivekanand quoted about cosmic Intelligence in his writings :
We see, that nothing can be created out of nothing. Everything exists through eternity, and will exist through eternity.
That every evolution is preceded by an involution. The seed is the father of the tree, but another tree was itself the father of the seed. The seed is the fine form out of which the big tree comes, and another big tree was the form which is involved in that seed. The whole of this universe was present in the cosmic fine universe. The little cell, which becomes afterwards the man, was simply the involved man and becomes evolved as a man.Image


Only the movement is in succeeding waves and hollows, going back to fine forms, and coming out into gross manifestations. This involution and evolution is going on throughout the whole of nature.


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moon1Natural Satellites of Our Solar System:


Parent Planet Earth.

A Natural satellite or Moon is a celestial body which orbits a planet.  Our Moon  is a Natural Satellite, it orbits the Planet Earth.  It’s the first moon Humans ever observed.  But during 1950 ,only close glimpse of its surface was observed.  In 1969  American men  stepped on the moon.  A small step for man but was a giant leap for Mankind.

·  Distance to Earth: 384,400 km

·  Gravity: 1.622 m/s²

·  Orbital period: 27 days

·  Age: 4.527 billion years

·  Circumference: 10,917 km

·  Orbits: Earth






Titan is the largest moon of Saturn. It is the only natural satellite known to have a dense atmosphere, and the only object other than Earth for which clear evidence of stable bodies of surface liquid has been found.  Titan resembles a frozen version of Earth several billions years ago. The moon is enveloped by an orange haze, which hindered the study of its surface.  But in 2004 onwards the spacecraft Cassini has revealed its whole new dimensions.

Distance to Earth: 1,272,000,000 km

Gravity: 1.352 m/s²

Orbital period: 16 days

Discovered: March 25, 1655

Orbits: Saturn

Discoverer: Christiaan Huygens



Europaeuropa pic


Parent Planet: Jupiter

Why You Should Know it: Despite being covered by distinctive, criss-crossing cracks and ridges, Europa’s water-ice surface is largely free of craters, making it perhaps the smoothest solid body in the entire solar system. More interesting than Europa’s frozen exterior, however, is what lies hidden beneath it.


·  ·  Gravity: 1.315 m/s²

·  Distance to Earth: 628,300,000 km

·  Orbital period: 85 hours

·  Discovered: January 8, 1610

·  Orbits: Jupiter

·  Discoverers: Simon Marius, Galileo


Moon: Tritontriton

Parent Planet: Neptune
Why You Should Know it: Of all the biggest, “major” moons in the solar system, Triton is the only one that orbits in a direction opposite that of its parent planet’s rotation. Astrophysicists call this a “
retrograde orbit,” and it’s typical of moons that have been “captured” by their parent planet.

·  ·  Triton is the largest moon of the planet Neptune, discovered on October 10, 1846, by English astronomer William Lassell.

·  ·  Orbital period: 141 hours

·  Discovered: 1846

·  Gravity: 0.779 m/s²

·  Distance to Earth: 4,338,000,000 km

·  Orbits: Neptune

·  Discoverer: William Lassell

The innermost  planet Mercury has no moons.  Venus has no Moons.

Earth has one moon the largest Moon of any  rocky Planet in the Solar System.  Mars has two known moons , the Phobos and Diemos. Jupitor has 67 known moons. Saturn has 62 Moons .Uranus has 27 named Moons. Neptune has 14 named moons. Among dwarf planets Ceres has no .  moons . Pluto has five moons. 

Haumea has two moons, Namaka and Hi’iaka

Makemake has no known moons.




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 The term human in human evolution refers to genus Homo. This genus diverged from the Australopithecines about 2 million years ago in Africa. Scientists have estimated that humans deviated from their common ancestor chimpanzees about 5 to 7 million years ago. Due to the morphological and anatomical similarities between the apes and humans, scientists believed that the great apes were the closest biological relatives of human beings.


Homo is the genus which includes modern man and its close relatives. It is about 2.5 million years old and evolved with the Homo habilis species. Its appearance coincides with the evidence of stone tools and the beginning of the Lower Paleolithic Age. Homo habilis, Homo rudolfensis, Homo antecessor, Homo cepranensis, Homo neanderthalensis, Homo erectus, Homo heidelbergensis, Homo georgicus, Homo ergaster, Homo rhodesiensis, Homo sapiens andHomo floresiensis were the species from the genus homo. Except Homo sapiens, all species have become extinct.
Homo neanderthalensis and Homo floresiensis who were the last surviving species, disappeared around 12,000 to 24,000 years ago respectively. Humans first evolved in Africa, and much of human evolution occurred on that continent. The fossils of early humans who lived between 6 and 2 million years ago come entirely from Africa.

Jumpstyle Evolution

Early humans first migrated out of Africa into Asia probably between 2 million and 1.8 million years ago. They entered Europe somewhat later, between 1.5 million and 1 million years. Species of modern humans populated many parts of the world much later. For instance, people first came to Australia probably within the past 60,000 years and to the Americas within the past 30,000 years or so. The beginnings of agriculture and the rise of the first civilizations occurred within the past 12,000 years.


Early human fossils and archeological remains offer the most important clues about this ancient past. These remains include bones, tools and any other evidence (such as footprints, evidence of hearths, or butchery marks on animal bones) left by earlier people. Usually, the remains were buried and preserved naturally.

Ape Skeletons

Onefossil discovery above all has transformed views of how we became human. But who was Lucy, and why is she so important to human evolution? Lucy was discovered in 1974 by anthropologist Professor Donald Johanson and his student Tom Gray in a maze of ravines at Hadar in northern Ethiopia. Johanson and Gray were out searching the scorched terrain for animal bones in the sand, ash and silt when they spotted a tiny fragment of arm bone.

Hall of Human Origin

Discovery of a lifetime Johanson immediately recognised it as belonging to a hominid. As they looked up the slope, they saw more bone fragments: ribs, vertebrae, thighbones and a partial jawbone. They eventually unearthed 47 bones of a skeleton – nearly 40% of a hominid, or humanlike creature, that lived around 3.2 million years ago. Based on its small size, and pelvic shape, they concluded it was female and named it ‘Lucy’ after ‘Lucy in the Sky with Diamonds’, the Beatles song playing on the radio when Johanson and his team were celebrating the discovery back at camp.

Homo Sapiens

The rare laughing species The humans are known to possess a rare quality that distinguishes them from the rest of the animals: smile and laughter!

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Our Universe

WHO SPEAKS FOR EARTH? As I flip the pages of my diary I come across the quotation of Saint Gnyaneshwar “Hey Vishwachi mazhe ghar.” “The universe is my abode.” Another quote of a famous scientist an American astronomer ,an astrophysicist,an astrochemist.. Carl Edward Sagan… “ Something in us recognizes the Cosmos as home. We are made of stellar ash. Our origin and evolution have been tied to distant cosmic events. The exploration of cosmos is a voyage of self-discovery.” The saints quest of the universe is within the body while the the quest of the scientist is outside . The paths to achieve the goal are different. The above quotation of Carl Sagan is from his book Cosmos, which attracted my attention. I hurriedly devoured the chapter, “who speaks for earth?” Lets see what they(these modern Rishis) have to say about Universe and our planet earth.

The Pale Blue Dot is a photograph of planet Earth taken in 1990 by the Voyager 1 spacecraft from a record distance of about 6 billion kilometers (3.7 billion miles) from Earth,

The earth when viewed from space looks a fragile blue crescent fading to become an inconspicuous point of light against the bastion and citadel of the stars. There are worlds on which life has never risen. There are worlds that have been charred and ruined by cosmic catastrophes. We are fortunate, our Earth seems to be the only abode for life! Suppose, in this universe of billions and billions of stars the solar system may have planets like earth & with proper chemistry – life may be possible there but how lonely and incomprehensible. The galaxies of stars encompasses and swallows them up like an atom so vastly greater is it in comparison. And yet this frail and fragile atom of life as Pascal said, “the entire universe need not arm itself to crush is able to comprehend the blind and uncomprehending hostility of the universe that around that knows not what it is doing. This awesome hostility of the universe may frighten it but even a frightened being conscious of its own peril is greater than the entire caravan of bright blind galaxies of stars that unaware of its own majesty and magnificence hurry along the intergalactic wastes without knowing why they hurry whence and whither they hurry and cannot even ask for….”

VOYAGER1 Spacecraft

Another and another cup to drown The Memory of this Impertinence! With the recent Technological development we are able to view these caravan of bright blind galaxies. The Hubble Telescope(NASA) is sending photographs and information which we cannot imagine . SETI (Search for Extra Terrestrial Intelligence) formulated by Carl Sagan have contributed to a large share in recent Discovery. Due to the global nuclear Arms race our earth is in real danger. Our human race has become an endangered species. With the accumulation of arms, the more and high sophisticated armaments the powerful is the Nation is the concept of the leaders. . We know who speaks for the nations. Bur who speaks for the human species . Who speaks for the Earth? Another British scientist James Lovelock is concerned about the threat of global warming from the greenhouse effect. The damage has already been done no amount of tree plantation or curbing the greenhouse gases will save our earth. The only solution is the use of Nuclear Power. He pronounced, that only nuclear power can now halt global warming! To save the Earth, global awareness is required. Each one of us have to contribute in whatever small manner we can for eg, saving energy ,saving petrol,saving money, tree plantation rearing animals living simple life. No extravaganza or wastage. No leadership is required for this .Each individual is a leader of this movement. The welfare of our civilization and our species is in our own hands. If we do not speak for earth who will? If we are not committed for our survival who will be?

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